Niš is one of the oldest cities in the Balkan. It is the second largest city in our country.
Situated at the crossroads, Niš connects the Balkan to Europe, and Europe to the Near East. That is why it has always been considered a gateway between The East and The West.
City territory is 596 square meters.
Niš climate is moderate continental with mid annual temperature 11,8 °C , the coldest month is January ( 0,5 °C ) and annual rainfall about 550 l /m2.
The whole city celebrates the 3rd of June – Day of Saint Emperor Constantine and Helene.
Pre – Roman period: ilyrians, thracians, celts
II century a. d. : Romans made Niš into military city municipate – free city
280. year a. d. : Favius Valerius Constantini – Constantin The Great was born in Niš
441. and 450. a. d. : Niš was destroyed by Huns
6th. Century: Slavs come to Balcans: Niš develops by Byzantine city under the rule Byzantine Empress Theodora
1183. Serbian Župan Stevan Nemanja conquers Niš
1189. Stefan Nemanja mits in Niš with German emperor Frederic Barbarossa, and they form alliance against the Byzantinum.
1202. Nemanjas son Vukan, takes over Niš from Byzantium.
1203 Stefan Nemanja liberates Niš from Bulgarians 1386. Turks conquer Niš, when the period of much century slavery begins.
1718 – 1723. On the remains of Roman and Byzantin fortifications, Turks build the new fortress 1908. first rebellion battles near Niš against the Turskish rule. On 19. May the same year, in great battle on Cegar hill, near Niš, the famous duke Stevan Sindjelićwas killed. From the heads of the killed Serbs, turks have contracted the ” Skull tower “
1878.Niš was liberated from Turkish rule
1879. First comprehensive secondary was founded 1887. First National Theatre ” Sindjelić ” was founded
1894. First railway Belgrade – Niš was constructed
1900. First number of literary magazine ” Gradina ” was issued
1905. Art colony in Sicevo was founded by painter Nadežda Petrović
1914. Serbian government was moved, Niš became the war capital of Serbia.
Niš was liberated 12. October 1918.
Between two World wars Niš was the center of Morava Region.
1945. II World War – 14. October liberation of Niš
MONUMENTS OF NIŠ
Monument to the liberators of Niš
It was built in the honor of Niš liberation in World War I.
The monument was made by the sculptor Antun Augustinc, and it is situated at king milan square.
Čair drink – fountain
It was put up in 1903 at the present location.
In the meantime, the fountain was taken to the city park Čair, and in 2007 it was restituted to the original location.
Monument dedicated to the people of Niš hung by the Turks in 1821
It was put up in 1913 in memory of 35 years of the liberation from the Turks and 1600 years of signing the Milan edict by bishop Dositej with the clergy.
Monument dedicated to the meeting of Serbian Despot Stevan Nemanja and Emperor Frederick I Barbarosa
The gates of Niš saw in several well – known dignitaries of Europe. In 1906 , the Crusade leader Walter visited Niš, and in 1189 Niš welkomed Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in his campaing against Byzyntium. He was greeted here by his ally, Serbian Despot Stefan Nemanja.
Army home building
During World War One, this was Serbian Wartime Parliament Building. A very important session of the Parliament was held on December 7th, 1914, in the Officers Home building, where the Government’ s proposal for the unification of south Slavic peoples was discussed. It was here that the well – known Niš Declaration was made – the constitution of the unified State of the Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians.
Monument to Prince Milan Obrenović
On 11th January 1978, Milan Obrenović liberated Niš from the Turks. In 1902, in his honor this monument in the form of gun – bullet was made by the Italian stone – cutter Vitoria Carruco.
The Skull Tower
The Skull Tower is a unique monument in the world.
This is a monument into which the skulls of Serbian rebels were built, as Turkish retaliation after the battle of Čegarin 1809 upon the order of Turkish Hurshid Pasha.
There are 952 skulls built into the Skull Tower.
This archeological site testifies of the richness and glamour of the Imperial Naissus. Remnants of the palace with a peristyle were discovered, as well as luxurious villas with mosaic, sacral objects ( a baptistery ) , economic buildings with big clay vessels known as pitos, and other buildings, all testifying of the cultureand luxury of Naissus during Constantine’ s reign ( from 306 to 337 ) .
A place where the Batlle of Čegar took place on May 19th, 1809.
The Bubanj Hill monument
The location on which over 10, oo0 inhabitants of Niš and south Serbia were shot during World War Two.